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Likewise, I want women to adorn themselves with proper clothing, modestly and discreetly, not with braided hair and gold or pearls or costly garments, 10 but rather by means of good works, as is proper for women making a claim to godliness.
God certainly calls women to be modest, not only in the church but out of the church.
1 Cor 11:6-7
6 For if a woman does not cover her head, let her also have her hair cut off; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, let her cover her head. 7 For a man ought not to have his head covered, since he is the image and glory of God;
It was the practice of women who served in the Pagen temples as prostitutes to shave their heads, we believe this is why Paul is talking about this, even though there may be a deeper reason that I have not found yet, the scripture does not declare the length in which a womens hair should be.
1 Cor 11:14-16
14 Does not even nature itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him, 15 but if a woman has long hair, it is a glory to her? For her hair is given to her for a covering.
For a man to have long hair is to go against nature, how I am not sure but the scriptures teach that it is dishonor.
I am sure that most things today have pagen history such as earrings, but I see no need to worry about it unless it gets in the way of worship. Short skirts are offensive to me as a man because it moves people to lose focus on God in worship, its not about us its about HIM (God).
I do not let my daughter wear skirts because it gives the wrong impression of who she is.
I hope this helps, I am sure that some will not agree with me but then again most do not see it in this manner because of self motivation.
If someone has a better insight on the head coverings I would be delighted to hear.
First, you asked about women wearing skirts. The Bible gives us God's requirements for modesty. This applies to pants, shirts, make-up, skirts, shorts, etc... What are the Bible standards for men and women being modest? Lets look at a few passages. In Genesis 3:7 Adam and Eve realize they are naked and make aprons or loin coverings. Some translations describe this as girdles. Much like some of our modern day short shorts. In Genesis 3:21 we see that God is not satisfied with their aprons and makes tunics or garments of skins for them. So what was the difference? What made one pleasing and the other not? Lets look a little closer at some other passages. In Exodus 28 a discussion of what the priests were to wear under the Law of Moses is given. In verse 42 God says "make linen breeches to cover their bare flesh, they shall reach from the loins to the thighs." We can see from God's own description that bare flesh that he wanted covered was from the loins to the thighs. New King James version describes bare flesh with the term nakedness. We can concluded that any skirt or shorts that expose the thigh, God would view as nakedness. In Isaiah 47: 2-3 we see this theme continued with the thigh being uncovered described as nakedness.
One other key piece to understanding modesty is what our dress may do to others. Skirts and shorts to short, jeans and shirts too tight, too much body revealed could cause another to think thoughts which God views as sin. In Matthew 18:6-9 we see what God thinks about one who causes another to stumble. In Matthew 5:27-30 Jesus describes lusting after someone as adultery. Our dress can cause one to sin if we are not careful. Yes, one can lust after a fully clothed modest individual, however we do not ever want to give cause for lust by our lack of clothing.
Secondly, you asked about short hair. Throughout the Bible God calls women to meet the role of women and men to meet the role of men. He condemns homosexual activity and in I Corinthians 6:9 He condemns the man who acts like a woman (effeminate). I Corinthians 11 addresses the woman's hair but God gives no description of how long is long enough. in verse 6 cut off or shaven is described as disgraceful. Based upon that I would certainly think a woman with normal health circumstances would need to have her hair beyond those descriptions.
Your third question involved earrings. I assume this would include all jewelry. In ITimothy 2:9-10 we learn that our focus is not that of outward appearances but that of good works, making a claim to godliness. In I Peter 3:1-4 our adornment is not to be "merely" the outward but the person of the heart. As we see God does not say never wear these items, but do not let them be your focus. Our inward character is what should describe us, not what we have on. The woman seeking to please God will seek first the inward beauty and then clothe herself in modesty as prescribed in God's word. As Christians we should look nice to the best of our ability, however our heart is what must be first. In Proverbs 31 the worthy woman took pride in herself and her appearance. Note verses 17 and 22. However, she is praised for much more. Note verses 28-30. This too should be our goal.