The qualifications for deacons are given in I Tim. 3:8-13. It is stated in verse 13, "For those who serve well as deacons..." So, deacons are servants as are the elders and all members. But, the Bible does not say deacons are to oversee a church as it speaks of the elders (I Tim. 3:1; Acts 20:28; I Pet. 5:2). They are to serve but not to oversee.
Some have concluded that in the absence of elders the deacons can be supervised by business meetings of the congregation. They say that deacons serve the congregation and the absence of elders does not dispense with the work.
The question I have is how wise is it to appoint deacons where there are no elders? It may not be unscriptural, but without elders maybe those appointed as deacons would assume oversight for which they are not qualified?
Since all members should be serving as they have abilities (I Cor. 12:12-31), it seems advisable for churches to train men to meet the qualifications of elders so they can be appointed. Then deacons can be appointed to serve under the oversight of the elders.